Update: After six years of negotiations, the UN climate talks at COP26 in Glasgow produced a strong Paris Agreement rulebook for international cooperation through carbon markets. The agreed Article 6 rules, while not perfect, give countries the tools they need for environmental integrity, to avoid double counting and ultimately to clear a path to get private capital flowing to developing countries. For EDF analysis, see Kelley Kizzier's statement.
With effective rules on transparency and robust accounting, international emissions trading can mobilize significant private sector investment and help the world meet the ambitious climate and development goals established in the Paris Agreement. These rules, if agreed, would form the bedrock of the international accord’s carbon market mechanisms under Article 6. Countries need to determine the content of these rules, which will become part of the Paris Agreement 'rulebook.' Negotiations over these rules will continue in COP 26 in Glasgow.
The details of accounting and transparency constitute the essential nuts and bolts of the Paris Agreement, and are critical to avoiding real risks of “double counting” of emissions reductions. The content of these rules is as important as countries’ headline climate targets, since the headline numbers are only as good as our ability to ensure countries are clearly reducing emissions and counting those reductions consistently.
Businesses know this. During COP 25 in Madrid, 64 companies, business groups and non-governmental organizations representing more than 1 billion workers in 130 countries signed the Declaration on Sound Carbon Accounting.The resources below are intended to contribute to ongoing international efforts to conclude effective guidance to countries on counting and reporting international transfers of emissions reductions (also known as internationally transferred mitigation outcomes, or “ITMOs,” under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement).
- Statement: COP26 Ends with a Strong Result on Carbon Markets and an International Call to Action for the Most Urgent Climate Priorities
- Blog: 4 Reasons Carbon Markets Rules under Article 6 (Finally) May be Agreed in Glasgow
- Joint statement: Call for a Robust Article 6 Outcome in Glasgow
- Position paper: Joint Inputs on the Work Programme on the Framework for Non-Market Approaches under Article 6.8
Article 6 primers
- Issue brief: Why Article 6 of the Paris Agreement Matters [PDF]
- Working paper: Making Sense of Article 6: Key Issues and What's at Stake
Carbon markets and ambition
- Issue brief: The power of markets to increase ambition [PDF]
- Blog: International emissions trading could increase ambition
- Issue brief: Joint Inputs on Enabling Ambition in Article 6 Instruments [PDF]
- Press release: New Research Shows Large-Scale Emissions Reductions Programs Provide Durable Climate Protection
- Position paper: Outside in? Using international carbon markets for mitigation not covered by nationally determined contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement
Double counting/corresponding adjustments
- Position paper: Joint Inputs on Avoiding Double Use for Outside the Nationally Determined Contribution for Article 6.4 of the Paris Agreement [PDF]
- Handbook: How to Avoid Double Counting Of Emissions Reductions under the Paris Agreement: Handbook [PDF], Grid [PDF]
- Blog: “Double counting” a bigger risk than previously thought
- Blog: Climate negotiators can protect the Paris Agreement by avoiding double counting
- Press release: Business and Environmental Groups Reinforce Katowice Declaration on Sound Carbon Accounting
- Press release: Environmental and Corporate Groups Urge Countries to Adopt Rules on Sound Carbon Accounting Under Paris Agreement
- Position paper: Double counting and the Paris Agreement rulebook
Clean Development Mechanism
- Position paper: The Future of the Clean Development Mechanism under a New Regime of Higher Climate Ambition [PDF]
- Position paper: What is the Legal Basis for the Use of Certified Emission Reductions after 2020? [PDF]
Updates on our climate work
Date updated: August 17, 2021