Chemical Testing in the 21st Century: Additional Resources
On this page, you will find a collection of links and related reading about new approaches for evaluating chemical hazard and risk that are being developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal entities, including the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The content is organized into several subsections (see below). We hope that these resources will both further your understanding of new chemical testing approaches and serve as a reference for future research and engagement.
- General Information
- Related Reports
- Technical Publications
- CompTox Chemical Information Databases
- National Academies' Standing Committee on Use of Emerging Science for Environmental Health Decisions (Relevant Meetings)
- Additional Information/Resources
- EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT)
- Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCast) Program
- Chemical Testing in the 21st Century (Tox21) Program
- Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) Program
- Virtual Embryo (V-Embryo) Program
- Virtual Liver (V-Liver) Program
- Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPi) Tool
- Determining Uncertainty Project
- Next Generation of Risk Assessment (NexGen) Program
- Computational Toxicology Communities of Practice
- Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP)
- EPA Computational Toxicology Research Program (CompTox) [PDF]
- High-Throughput In Vitro Testing
- Virtual Tissues Program [PDF]
- Chemical Toxicity Databases [PDF]
- Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPi) Tool [PDF]
- Use of New Approaches in Risk Assessment
- A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program [PDF]. EPA, 2003
- Toxicity Testing in the Twenty-first Century: A Vision and a Strategy. NAS, 2007
- US EPA Office of Research and Development Computational Toxicology Research Program Implementation Plan for Fiscal Years 2009-2012 [PDF]. EPA, 2009
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals [PDF]. EPA, 2009
- Advancing the Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment: Public Dialogue Conference Summary Report [PDF]. EPA 2011
- Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program for the 21st Century (EDSP 21) Work Plan/Summary. EPA, 2011
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Comprehensive Management Plan [PDF]. EPA, 2012
- Application of Computational Toxicological Approaches in Support Human Health Risk Assessment, Project Summary. EPA, 2012
- EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Draft Report: Advice on the Use of CompTox to Advance Risk Assessment [PDF]. EPA, 2012.
- EDF comments on SAB Draft Report [PDF]. EDF, 2012.
Select Technical Publications
To access all publications from EPA’s Computational Toxicology Program, visit: http://www.epa.gov/ncct/publications.html.
- Genetic toxicology in the 21st Century: reflections and future directions. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, June 2011.
- A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing. ALTEX, January 2012.
New Methods for Evaluating Chemicals
- Virtual Tissues in Toxicology. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, February 2010.
- In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project. Environmental Health Perspectives, April 2010.
- Analysis of Eight Oil Spill Dispersants Using Rapid, In Vitro Tests for Endocrine and Other Biological Activity. Environmental Science and Technology, July 2010.
- Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, February 2011.
- Activity profiles of 309 ToxCast chemicals evaluated across 292 biochemical targets. Toxicology, March 2011.
- Use of in vitro HTS-derived concentration-response data as biological descriptors improves the accuracy of QSAR models of in vivo toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives, March 2011.
- Estimating Toxicity-Related Biological Pathway Altering Doses for High-Throughput Chemical Risk Assessment. Chemical Research in Technology, April 2011.
- Chemical Genomics Profiling of Environmental Chemical Modulation of Human Nuclear Receptors. Environmental Health Perspectives, May 2011.
- Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, November 2011.
- Quantitative High-Throughput Screening for Chemical Toxicity in a Population-Based In Vitro Model. Toxicological Sciences, January 2012.
- Zebrafish developmental screening of the ToxCast Phase I chemical library. Reproductive Toxicology, April 2012.
- Using in Vitro High Throughput Screening Assays to Identify Potential Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals. [PDF] Environmental Health Perspectives, September 2012.
Understanding Chemical Exposure
- Exposure science and the U.S. EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, May 2010.
- The Exposure Data Landscape for Manufactured Chemicals. Science of the Total Environment, January 2012.
- Integration of dosimetry, exposure, and high-throughput screening data in chemical toxicity assessment. Toxicological Sciences, January 2012.
- Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates. Toxicological Sciences. April 2012.
- Response to “Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates.” Toxicological Sciences. April 2012.
- Incorporating exposure information into the toxicology prioritization index decision support framework. Science of the Total Environment, October 2012.
Building Predictive Models Of Chemical Toxicity
- Predictive model of rat reproductive toxicity from ToxCast high throughput screening. Biology of Reproduction, August 2011.
- Predictive models of prenatal developmental toxicity from ToxCast high-throughput screening data. Toxicological Sciences, November 2011.
Aggregate Chemical Information and Databases
- The Toxicity Data Landscape for Environmental Chemicals. Environmental Health Perspectives, May 2009.
- Aggregating Data for Computational Toxicology Applications: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACToR) System. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, February 2012. [Includes information on other CompTox databases (e.g. ToxCastDB, ExpoCastDB, DSSToxDB)]
CompTox Chemical Information Databases
- Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (ACToR) – ACToR is a repository of all publicly available chemical toxicity data. It also houses information related to chemical risk to human health and the environment. This database contains information on over 500,000 chemicals from more than 650 public sources.
- Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database Network (DSSTox) – DSSTox is an online public database of standardized chemical structures that are linked to “high-interest” toxicity data sets.
- Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) – ToxRefDB contains data on hundreds of chemicals, mostly pesticides, compiled from thousands of traditional in vivo animal toxicity studies. To date, the studies in ToxRefDB are primarily regulatory “guideline” studies that follow standardized protocols.
- Toxicity Forecaster Database (ToxCastDB) – The ToxCast database is being built to house data on thousands of chemicals being run through the hundreds of HT screening assays in ToxCast. Only a subset of the ToxCast data is currently available.
- Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization Database (ExpoCastDB) – The ExpoCastDB contains measurements of the levels of chemicals in environmental and biological media collected from homes and childcare centers. Data currently available include, to varying degrees, the amounts of these chemicals found in or on food, drinking water, air, dust, indoor surfaces and urine. The public version of ExpoCastDB currently includes limited exposure data for 99 chemicals, mostly pesticides.
- “Agencies Hope Robot Can Speed Toxics Evaluations, End Animal Testing.” The New York Times, May 2011.
- “Robot Allows High-Speed Testing of Chemicals.” Scientific American, October 2011.
- “US Tox21 to begin screening 10,000 chemicals.” NIH News, December 2011.
- Interview with Dr. Bob Kavlock, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Science, EPA ORD [PDF]. Environmental Health Perspective’s “The Researchers Perspective” Podcast Transcript, March 2010.
- Interview with Dr. Kevin Crofton (NCCT director). The Federal News Radio, June 2012.
National Academies' Standing Committee on Use of Emerging Science for Environmental Health Decisions
- Relevant Meetings