EDF has identified communities that have publicly set a goal of fully replacing all lead service lines (LSLs) in their jurisdiction. The table below provides a summary of those who have stated the goal in an official source. Follow the links in the first column for more details below.
While many communities are diligently working on LSL replacement, they may not yet be ready or willing to set a goal of full replacement. We recognize these communities who are taking steps below as well.
Summary of community full lead service line replacement goals
Table displays best in landscape mode
|Community or utility||Estimate of LSLs||Date of goal||Timeframe to achieve||Type of commitment||Notes|
|Ann Arbor, MI||100||2016||None set||City's goal||Began removing lead goosenecks 25 years ago|
|Bozeman, MT||85||May 2016||None set||city's goal||Full replacement at the city cost|
|Central Arkansas Water, AR||Unknown||2016||December 2018||Utility's goal||Program includes robust customer service outreach|
|Chelsea, MA||Unknown||2018||None set||City's goal||Replacement at no cost to resident|
|Cincinnati, OH||43,500||October 2016||15 years||Ordinance||Cost sharing and low-income assistance program available|
|Denver, CO||60,000||Unknown||None set||Utility's goal||Low interest loans available for homeowners|
|Detroit, MI||125,000||Spring 2017||None set||Utility's goal||Plan being developed|
|Eau Claire, WI||1,266||April 2017||None set||Utility's goal||Funding available for private side replacement|
|Escanaba, MI||3,500||January 2019||20 years||Utility goal||Rate increase implemented|
|Flint, MI||20,000||February 2016||3 years||Mayor's goal||State and federal government providing portion of funding|
|Green Bay, WI||1,229||2016||10 years||Ordinance||Funding available for private side replacement|
|Indiana American Water, IN
|50,000||January 2018||10 - 24 years||Filing plan||Plan must be approved by Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission|
|Jefferson, WI||Unknown||April 2017||None set||Ordinance||Funding available for private side replacement|
|Kalamazoo, MI||Unknown||2016||None set||City's goal||City own the entire service line|
|Kaukauna, WI||Unknown||Unknown||None set||Ordinance||Property owner finances replacement on the private side|
|Kenosha, WI||9,000||April 2018||10-30 years||City's and Utility's Goal||First plan approved by WI Public Service Commission|
|Kewaunee, WI||Unknown||June 2015||None set||Ordinance||Replacement at property owner's cost|
|Marlborough, MA||1,200||Unknown||5 years||Utility's goal||Funding available for property owners|
|Menasha, WI||437||October 2018||10 years||City's and Utility's Goal||Plan awaits approval by state Public Service Commission|
|Missouri American Water, MO
|30,000||May 2018||10 years||Filing plan||Plan approved by state Public Service Commission|
|Mosinee, WI||Unknown||2019||None set||Ordinance||Funding available for private replacement|
|Needham, MA||1,2000||2019||None set||City's goal||Replacement at no cost to resident|
|Newark, NJ||15,000||2019||2.5 years||Mayor's goal||Funding provided by county loan|
|Northwestern Water & Sewer District, OH||322||June 2018||None set||Utility's goal||Interactive map with LSL locations|
|Pennsylvania American Water, PA
|18,000||May 2017||10 years||Filing plan||Plan must be reviewed by state Public Utility Commission|
|Platteville, WI||400||April 2017||None set||Utility's goal||Funding available for private side replacement|
|Pueblo, CO||Unknown||Unknown||None set||Utility's goal||Plan being developed|
|Somerville, MA||450||2019||None set||City's goal||Replacement at no cost to resident|
|Tacoma, WA||1,200||May 2016||5 years||Utility's goal||Program addresses lead goosenecks|
|Tucson, AZ||530||2017||December 2018||Utility's goal||City covers cost on private property|
|Two Rivers, WI||2,600||Unknown||None set||Ordinance||Funding available for private side replacement|
|York, PA||1,660||November 2016||9 years||Utility's goal||Cost of replacement in customer rates|
|Quincy, MA||150||Unknown||None set||Utility's goal||Replacement at no cost to homeowners|
|Waterloo, WI||Unknown||December 2016||None set||Ordinance||Funding available for private side replacement|
* Estimate of the total LSLs for which communities have set a goal to replace. This number is likely an underestimate, as most communities do not know where all of the LSLs are located.
Full descriptions of community programs
For each community, we describe their progress on the following four areas, based on publicly available information: avoiding partial replacement; providing economical and equitable replacement options; developing a robust, public inventory; and providing guidance to property owners. When referring to ownership of the service line, we use the community's language.
Goals of full lead service line replacement
The 111 communities below have set a goal of full LSL replacement in the form of an ordinance, utility goal, or other statement on the municipality or utility website. Programs differ in what progress they have made, funding mechanisms, and approaches to disclosing LSL location information to the public.
While setting a goal of replacing LSLs is commendable, community members should follow closely to ensure that progress is made towards these goals.
Ann Arbor, Michigan
The City of Ann Arbor committed to removing the remaining 100 lead goosenecks** in its system. The removal process began in 1991, and the city announced its plan to remove all goosenecks in 2016.
The City of Bozeman announced an LSL Replacement Project in May 2016 with the goal of identifying and replacing all LSLs in the water system. For the project, the City identified homes with LSLs and offered water testing to establish a replacement schedule. The Bozeman Water and Sewer Department plans to replace the identified lines over the next several years and fully replace LSLs when discovered during maintenance activities. The city estimates 85 LSLs remain in the water system.
Central Arkansas Water, Arkansas
Central Arkansas Water (CAW) – which services Little Rock, North Little Rock, and surrounding areas – and predecessor utilities started conducting LSL replacements in the 1980s. The utility began a more aggressive program in 2016 to verify unknown service material and review previous records to identify remaining LSLs. CAW has a goal of replacing all remaining LSLs.
In 2018, the city of Chelsea began a multi-year program to replace the remaining LSLs in the water system, at no cost to homeowners. The city has replaced LSLs on public property for many years and began replacing lines on private property more recently during water main work. For its new program, the city is engaging with residents to check their service line material to identify remaining LSLs. To help fund the initiative, Chelsea received loans through the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority.
In October 2016, the Cincinnati City Council passed an ordinance directing the Greater Cincinnati Water Works (GCWW) to develop a program to replace the remaining 16,500 LSLs on public property and 43,500 LSLs on private property in the City within 15 years. In June 2017, the City Council passed three ordinances to implement the replacement program. The ordinances prohibited existing LSLs (with an automatic grace period for residents), and required residents to choose whether to replace an LSL at their own cost or contract with GCWW to do so once the utility notifies the resident of the need to replace an LSL. Additionally, landlords must notify prospective tenants if a unit is serviced by an LSL. Through GCWW’s Enhanced Lead Program, the utility offers cost-sharing for residents and additional assistance to qualified residents through the “Help Eliminate Lead Pipes” program (HELP) which is a one-time cost benefit applied as a credit on the LSL Replacement final bill. GCWW also offers 10 year interest free payback on the balance of private side replacements for residents inside of the city of Cincinnati and some surrounding areas. The utility is working with other political jurisdictions in its service area to expand this repayment option. GCWW provides extensive resources and educational materials about lead in water on its website, including a detailed interactive map for the public to search an address and learn if the service line material is lead.
Denver Water has publicly stated their goal to get LSLs out of their community. The utility conducts full replacements if they discover an LSL during planned construction and maintenance. To assist homeowners with the cost of replacement, Denver Water partnered with Denver Urban Renewal Authority to provide low-interest loans to eligible homeowners. The utility is researching regulations, plumbing codes, and policies from prior decades to inventory where LSLs may exist.
Detroit is developing a program to replace all of the city's estimated 125,000 LSLs. The Detroit Water and Sewerage Department has identified three phases in the replacement program. Phase one, which launched in June 2017, covers improving the city's inventory and sampling protocol. In May 2017, DWSD began phase two to determine the protocol for eliminating partial replacements and completing full LSL replacements for planned water main replacement projects. Phase three includes prioritization of replacement in neighborhoods with high density LSLs and children with elevated blood lead levels. The third phase is expected to launch in spring 2018 pending finalization of the legal, financial, and technical aspects.
Eau Claire, Wisconsin
Eau Claire has stated a goal of removing the remaining LSLs in the city's system and avoiding partial LSL replacements. Using Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) funding, the city will reimburse property owners up to $2,000 for private side LSL replacement. Eau Claire estimates it has 1,266 LSLs remaining.
In May 2018, Escanaba adopted a resolution authorizing a Pilot Drinking Water grant from the state Department of Environmental Quality for water system improvements and determining it necessary to identify and replace LSLs and galvanized services in the city’s water system. As part of the replacement program, homeowners enter into an agreement with the city to have the water department perform an inspection of the service line, replace any lead or galvanized service hooked to a lead gooseneck on the public side, and coordinate with a private contractor to perform replacement on private property. The city has increased water rates to prepare for replacing approximately 3,500 services connected to lead goosenecks.
Following the crisis with Flint's water supply, Mayor Karen Weaver launched the FAST Start Initiative in February 2016 to replace all LSLs in the city. The goal of the program is to remove all 20,000 LSLs by 2020, with 6,000 replaced annually over the next 3 years. Updates on the program can be found on the City of Flint website. The city has received both federal and state funds to finish the inventorying and replacement process.
Green Bay, Wisconsin
In summer 2016, the city of Green Bay passed an ordinance establishing the need to create a comprehensive LSL replacement program and requiring property owners to replace private side lead services within a year of their discovery. Although the utility has been replacing utility-owned service lines since about 1990, it initiated a concerted effort to accelerate replacements beginning in January 2016. Green Bay estimates approximately 3% of its customers are affected by LSLs. A list of addresses is maintained on the utility's website displaying properties with LSLs. To assist with the cost of these replacements, the utility provides forgivable principal loans (grants) from the Wisconsin DNR.
Indiana American Water, Indiana
Pursuant to a state law enacted in 2017, Indiana American Water voluntarily submitted a plan on January 29, 2018 to the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission to fully replace 50,000 LSLs for over 305,000 customers in 27 community water systems across the state. The plan calls for the private utility to use rates paid by customers to fund the replacement of LSLs on customers’ property. Customers would have to agree to the improvements and pay for unusual costs – typically those above $7,000 per line. In May 2018, Indiana American Water received approval for its LSL replacement plan. The 27 systems (21 districts) are: Crawfordsville, Waveland, Kokomo, Russiaville, Muncie, Richmond, Somerset, Summitville, Wabash, Warsaw, West Lafayette, Westwood, Winchester, Mooresville, Noblesville, Shelbyville, Terre Haute, Farmersburg, Mecca, Sullivan, Merom, Southern Indiana, Georgetown, Newburgh, Yankeetown, Seymour, and Northwest Indiana.
In April 2017, the Jefferson Common Council adopted an ordinance to establish a comprehensive, voluntary program to replace LSLs on the utility side and private property. The ordinance requires inspection of the service line material on the private side before or during replacement of the water main and notification of the property owner if the line contains lead. Through Jefferson Utilities’ Lead Service Lateral Program, qualified property owners are eligible for full reimbursement for the cost of replacement – while funds are available.
The City of Kalamazoo has conducted LSL replacements as part of annual capital improvements since the 1990s but began a more aggressive program with a long-term plan to get lead out of the water system in 2016. The Public Services Department continues to explore additional funding sources to accelerate the program and replace all remaining LSLs in the city’s water system. Additionally, Kalamazoo offers free water testing to customers.
Kaukauna, Wisconsin’s Common Council adopted an ordinance to require the development of a comprehensive LSL replacement program in the city, which includes inspecting the material of the private side LSL when construction occurs on the public side and replacement if an LSL is discovered.
In April 2018, Kenosha’s city council adopted Rule 06-06 requiring the replacement of all existing LSLs in the water system, banning partial LSL replacements, and creating a financial assistance program for customer-side LSL replacements – subject to approval by the Wisconsin Public Service Commission (PSC). The ordinance also provides for inspection of services lines to determine material and create an inventory. In August 2018, the PSC approved the city’s application to establish a financial assistance program under which the utility provides eligible property owners with a grant up to 50% off the cost of replacement on the private side up to $2,000 combined with a 10-year low interest loan. Kenosha was the first Wisconsin community to apply for and undergo PSC review of a financial assistance program for LSL replacement. The city completed its first LSL replacement under the program in September 2018.
The city of Kewaunee adopted an ordinance in June 2015 requiring the establishment of a comprehensive LSL replacement program and replacement of LSLs when reconstructing a main under the street. The property owner must pay for the costs of LSL replacement on the owner’s property.
The Marlborough Water and Sewer Division announced a 5 year Lead Service Replacement Program to replace all LSLs in the City. To fund the cost of replacement, the City has partnered with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, which is providing a 10 year no-interest loan to Marlborough. The Water and Sewer Division estimates 1,200 LSLs remain in the system, and property owners are able to see suspected LSL locations on a list of addresses provided by the City.
In October 2018, the Menasha Common Council and Menasha Utilities approved a joint resolution recommending a goal of replacing all lead and galvanized service lines remaining in the city within 10 years. The resolution advised the City and the Menasha Utility to develop an LSL replacement program in which both the city and utility fund 1/3 the cost of private-side replacement up to $1,000, and property owners are eligible to receive a 5-year low-interest loan to finance the remaining 1/3 of the cost. Now, the program awaits approval by the Wisconsin Public Service Commission. The program expands upon previous work already undertaken by Menasha to reduce exposure to lead in water: including identification of homes with LSLs, a Lead Service Program that covers 95% of the cost of service line replacement on the private side, and providing low cost filters and technical assistance to interested residents. Additionally, in 2018, the City enacted an ordinance banning partial LSL replacement by requiring replacement of the privately-owned side of an LSL when the street main is replaced.
Missouri American Water, Missouri In May 2018, Missouri American Water received approval from the state’s Public Service Commission to continue its program to fully replace the estimated 30,000 LSLs in its 34 community water systems that serve 450,000 customers across the state. The program is funded by rates paid by customers to replace LSLs on private property and the costs are spread over 10 years. The utility earns a long-term debt return between rate cases, and must file annual reports with the Commission on the program’s progress. The 34 communities are Anna Meadows, Brunswick, Emerald Point, Hickory Hills, Jaxson Estates, Jefferson City (District and North), Joplin, Lake Carmel, Lake Taneycomo, Lakewood Manor, Lawson, Maplewood, Mexico, Ozark Mountain, Pevely Farms, Platte County, Rankin Acres, Red Field, Riverside, Saddlebrooke, Spokane Highlands, Spring Valley, St. Joseph, St. Louis County, St. Charles County, Stonebridge. Tri-States, Wardsville, Warren County, Warrensburg, Whitebranch, and Woodland Manor.
In addition, in 2018, American Water Capital Corporation applied for $84 million in Water Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act (WIFIA) loans from EPA to provide new pipes and service lines to over 20,000 customers in the St. Louis, MO area. The project includes replacing adjacent customer-owner LSLs. EPA selected the project for further evaluation.
In April 2019, Mosinee enacted an ordinance requiring replacement of all remaining LSLs on public and private property in the City. Using funding from the state Department of Natural Resources, Mosinee created a program that enables eligible property owners to receive up to $2,500 towards the cost of replacement. The City estimates that 100 LSLs remain on public property.
In June 2018, Needham received a loan from the Massachusetts Water Resource Authority to fund replacement of lead service lines and goosenecks on both public and private property. The city’s goal is replacement of 154 LSLs and 1,047 lead goosenecks. Needham conducted replacements through 2019 and is scheduled to continue in 2020.
Newark, New Jersey
Newark was required to being replacing LSLs in 2017. In August 2019, the Mayor and the state's Governor announced an expedited program to replace all LSLs, at no cost to homeowners, through a $120 million loan provided by the county. Additionally, the City has an interactive map on its website where users can look up their address and click on an icon to learn what available records indicate about the service line material.
Northwestern Water & Sewer District, Ohio
The Northwestern Water and Sewer District, serving customers in Wood, Sandusky, and Hancock counties, announced it was moving forward with its LSL Replacement Project in June 2018 with the goal of replacing the remaining 322 LSLs in the water system. The utility conducted outreach to affected homeowners, located in the City of Northwood and Rossford, and will perform replacements over the course of summer 2018. Northwestern Water & Sewer District has an interactive map on its website where property owners can see the location of known LSLs.
Pennsylvania American Water, Pennsylvania
In May 2017, Pennsylvania American Water sought the approval of the state Public Utility Commission (PUC) to revise the utility’s rules to permit it to replace customer-owned LSLs and to recover associated costs. In October 2018, while the proceeding was pending, the state legislature enacted a law providing for the replacement of LSLs on private property and recovery of the associated costs. Pennsylvania American Water’s program was approved by the state PUC in October 2019.
Platteville Public Works announced a goal in April 2017 of removing the LSLs that remain in the city. Using funds from Wisconsin DNR, the city is replacing LSLs at licensed childcare facilities and reimbursing property owners up to $1,140 for the cost of private side LSL replacement. The city also has a map detailing parcel, zoning, voting, and other information, including known LSL locations.
The Board of Water Works of Pueblo, Colorado announced its "Get the Lead Out" program to eliminate LSLs in the community. Under this program, property owners do not have the financial responsibility for replacement. While replacement will begin with known LSLs in older buildings, Pueblo Water will also take a physical inventory of service lines of unknown material and replace any additional LSLs found at no charge to the resident.
The City of Quincy committed to the goal of replacing the estimated 150 LSLs remaining in its system. The City plans to use a $1.5 million loan from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority to replace the lines at no cost to property owners. A list of buildings with identified LSLs is provided on the city's website.
In 2019, the City of Somerville launched a Lead Service Line Replacement Program with the goal of eliminating all non-copper services from the water system. Using funding from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, Somerville provides residents with an opportunity to replace the entire LSL or other non-copper water service line at no charge. In Phase One, the City is focusing on known LSLs and is prioritizing replacement in households where children are present, in vulnerable locations – including hospitals and daycares – and in areas planned for future construction projects. In future phases, the City plans to replace all remaining lead or non-copper service lines as well as verify the service line material where it currently is unknown. Somerville has a comprehensive searchable list of addresses and the material of the pipes at each address. From available records, the City estimates there are 450 known LSLs.
Tacoma Water has a goalof eliminating all remaining 1,200 lead goosenecks**, connecting the water main to the service line, the service system within 5 years. The utility provides a static map of possible gooseneck locations for interested residents.
Tucson Water has conducted LSL replacements and community outreach around lead in drinking water for decades but initiated a proactive approach, the Lead Public Health Goal 2019 Program, in 2016 with the goal of removing all LSLs in the system. The Lead Line Investigative team began the initiative by reviewing historical information and utility records to identify LSL locations. Replacements were first prioritized at facilities serving at-risk groups, including day cares, healthcare facilities, schools, and other public buildings. Tucson Water provides an interactive map on its website so users can view the location of parcels with known LSLs. Updates on the program's progress are provided on the utility's website.
Two Rivers, Wisconsin
Two Rivers adopted Ordinance 5-1-8 in January 2017 establishing the need for a comprehensive replacement program and requiring replacement if an LSL is discovered on the private side during water system reconstruction. The city is using funding in the form of principal forgiveness from Wisconsin DNR to aid eligible residents with the cost of LSL replacement on the private side. Two Rivers estimates that approximately half (2,600) of its 5,100 water services contain lead.
Waterloo adopted Ordinance 2016-4 in December 2016 establishing the need for a comprehensive LSL replacement plan and requiring replacement of private side LSLs. The city offers residents a grant equal to 75% of the cost of private side LSL replacement, up to $2,300.
In November 2016, York Water announced a commitment to replace the 1,660 LSLs in its service area. The utility received approval from the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission in March 2017 to replace privately owned LSLs at little to no cost for residents. York Water has distributed outreach materials to residents to inform homeowners about the program and to seek additional information about LSLs in the system.
Taking steps on replacing lead service lines
The 78 communities below have made important progress, but have not yet set a goal of replacing all LSLs. While each community differs, the programs are generally focused on replacing LSLs only when the main under the street is being reconstructed or are voluntary programs that help homeowners finance LSL replacement on the private side.
Albany, New York
In 2017, Albany received state funding for the purposes of facilitation of full LSL replacement. The City is using the grant to conduct replacements in the course of capital improvements, and is working to develop a program for full LSL replacement.
Ames, Iowa passed two ordinances in November 2017 requiring full LSL replacement when a service line containing lead develops a leak (at the cost of the property owner) and when discovered during water main replacement (at the cost of the water utility). The City has reached out to property owners and residents at locations with possible lead service lines and offered to conduct free water testing and follow up. Additionally, Ames has developed and posted an interactive map showing potential lead service line locations.
Using funding from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Ashland began a program in 2017 to replace LSLs in the city based on a priority scale. The program involves replacement of the privately-owned portion of the LSL at no cost to the homeowner. The program has continued into 2019 and is available to eligible property owners on a first-come-first-served basis.
Auburn, New York
In 2017, Auburn received funding from the state Department of Health for the purposes of LSL replacement. As part of its water infrastructure improvement work, the city conducted LSL replacements from the water main to the curb stop at no expense to property owners.
Aurora Water has an LSL replacement program to identify and remove remaining LSLs in the water system. To determine service line material, homeowners are required to sign a form, allow a city contractor to assess the line and perform a hydro-excavation. If the service line is lead, Aurora recommends replacement and provides options for funding the work – including rebates and a low-income program. Additionally, if the city identifies an LSL on public property, it replaces it and notifies the property owner to recommend material identification and, if necessary, replacement if the service is lead on the private side.
The city of Baraboo received funding from the state to replace LSLs throughout the city in 2017. At the beginning of 2019, the city announced that their Annual Maintenance activities will include upgrading the City’s Water system by replacing LSLs with those made of copper.
The Village of Barrington, Illinois has an interactive map, updated annually, displaying service line material at addresses. For each property, a marker indicates whether the service line is possibly lead on the resident-owned side, possibly lead on the village-owned side, not lead, or copper on either side. The Village estimates that 2,653 copper lines and 2,112 lines that are a combination of copper and/or lead remain in the water system.
Bennington is in the process of developing an LSL replacement program, starting with identifying locations that still have lead services. The Water Department has conducted outreach to homeowners listed as having an LSL, but response rate to the outreach has been low, and all homeowners are encouraged to request a service line inspection. The Town has published an interactive map displaying service line information on public and private property. As detailed records are only available up to 1983, approximately 50% of the listed LSLs likely have already been replaced.
Benton Harbor, Michigan
In 2018, Benton Harbor received a Pilot Drinking Water Grant from the state that the city has used to conduct full LSL replacements and inspect for additional LSLs in the water system. Thus far, the City has replaced approximately 20 LSLs or galvanized lines.
Binghamton, New York
In 2017, Binghamton received state funding for LSL replacement on private property. To start the process, the City’s Water Department committed to helping to identify properties to target for replacement.
In response to Michigan’s revised Lead and Copper Rule, the City of Birmingham has developed an Action Plan to reduce lead in drinking water that includes steps beyond the state rules. The City’s inventory indicates that approximately 780 properties have LSLs, and property owners with LSLs will be informed and offered a water filter. Additionally, residents can search an interactive online map to learn the material of the service line on public and private property at any address. The City plans to test water at all properties with LSLs and expedite replacements based on results.
In April 2016, Mayor Marty Walsh announced an expansion of the city's lead replacement incentive program, which was initiated in 2005. The Boston Water and Sewer Commission (BWSC) has committed resources to educate their customers on lead issues and allows eligible property owners to participate in the voluntary program. Participants can qualify for up to $2,000 off the cost of replacement of the part on private property with the remaining cost paid over 48 months at zero interest on their water bill. The utility provides a dedicated phone line for affected ratepayers. Additionally, BWSC has an interactive map available on its website that identifies properties with lead services with a red "L" icon.
Claremont, New Hampshire
In 2016, the Claremont Water Department began a “Get the Lead Out” program to replace LSLs in the city’s distribution system. The City investigated service line material and replaced LSLs found on public property. If the side of the line on private property was also found to be lead, the Public Works Department notified the property owner and encouraged them to coordinate with a contractor to replace the line.
Cleveland Water replaces city-owned LSLs during water infrastructure projects and emergency repairs, and it offers to replace the customer-owned portion if it is also made of lead and is disturbed by construction. If a customer wants to replace the LSL on private property, the utility will coordinate replacement of the city-owned portion. The utility has an online lookup tool for residents to check if the city-owned service line is made of lead. Additionally, Cleveland Water has a Lead Awareness Campaign to educate customers about the risks of lead in drinking water and ways to reduce exposure.
Columbus has an interactive map displaying possible locations of LSLs on public property and locations where the LSL has been removed or is not in use. Users must accept a disclaimer before viewing the map. The city also has a static PDF map showing potential locations of LSLs on public property.
In May 2017, the Concord Public Works Commission approved a pilot program to accelerate LSL replacement in the town. Under the program, the cost of private-side LSL replacement for eligible property owners does not exceed $1,500. The payment is invoiced to the homeowner’s water service bill, and it can be paid in a lump sum or interest-free over 1 year. The Water and Sewer Division estimates that 5% of the town’s 5,600 water services are lead. The Public Works staff is continually updating its water service records and actively reaching out to customers that may have LSLs. Customers with inquiries are encouraged to reach out directly to the Water and Sewer Division.
Crystal Lake, Illinois
The City of Crystal Lake will coordinate LSL replacement on the public side if the property owner chooses to replace the LSL located on the private side. The City has instructional materials to help residents evaluate their service line material.
Downer's Grove, Illinois
Downer’s Grove has an interactive map where residents can search an address and view whether the service line material is lead, non-lead, or unknown on the public and private side. The map has different icons to represent the public and private side and different colors to signify service line material.
East Lansing, Michigan
As a result of changes to the state Lead and Copper Rule, the city of East Lansing announced its plans for replacing all LSLs in the community. To assist in identifying service line material, the City encourages residents to take an online survey or have a Public Works staff member conduct an assessment. The City has sent initial notifications to residents with known LSLs and will continue to prioritize replacements as identified by location assessments.
In December 2018, Elgin City Council passed an ordinance amending the City’s Water Regulations to provide for the development of a voluntary LSL replacement program. Under the program, property owners are provided water filters and must select from three options if they have a private-side LSL and the city will be conducting infrastructure work or emergency repair work that will disrupt the line. The resident can:
- Hire a plumber to replace the line at their own cost.
- Use a city approved plumber and receive a loan up to $4,800 from the city, paid back over 5 years or 10 years for low to moderate income residents.
- Sign a waiver and commit to using filtered water or drinking bottled water for two years, with additional conditions.
Elkhart Lake, Wisconsin
Elkhart Lake announced a program in February 2017 to assist residents with the cost of replacing LSLs on private property. Using Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources funding, the Village reimburses property owners up to $6,000. The Village began replacement work in November 2017 at residences with identified LSLs.
The City of Evanston has an LSL replacement program to help coordinate the process and assist homeowners with the cost of replacement. Under the program, eligible homeowners can apply for a loan up to $4,800 towards the cost of replacement on private property, which can be paid back to the city over 48 months through the property owner’s utility bill. This loan is only applicable when water main replacement work is being conducted on a resident's block. The City also will coordinate to replace the portion of the line owned by the City after the property owner replaces the portion on private property. Additionally, Evanston has developed an interactive map on its website where users can search the map using their address or account number, select an icon on the address of interest, and learn the service line material on the public and private side of the line.
In 2018, Evart received a Pilot Drinking Water Infrastructure Grant from the state Department of Environmental Quality for updating the distribution system material inventory and replacing LSLs. The City is using existing information and field investigations to update its inventory and has provided a map of expected LSL replacement locations. Under the program, property owners can have their LSL replaced at no cost after entering into an agreement with the City. The City provided an information packet to property owners to ensure they are aware of and understand the program.
Fond du Lac, Wisconsin
As part of their "Get the Lead Out" program, the City of Fond du Lac announced that it is necessary to replace LSLs in the community. In February 2017, the city council passed Ordinance 3629 prohibiting partial LSL replacements and mandating replacement if an LSL is found during construction. Approximately 2,986 LSLs remain on the public side, which can be viewed on an interactive map. The city does not have an estimate for the number of privately owned LSLs. Wisconsin DNR provided funds to the city to help alleviate residents' financial burden of replacing LSLs on the private side. Homeowners who use a City Prequalified Plumber to replace the private side of the LSL are eligible for a subsidy of the costs up to a maximum of $3,000 per property.
Fort Worth, Texas
For 20 years, Fort Worth has removed LSLs when found in the course of maintenance activities and water rehabilitation projects, and the city has recently set a goal of replacing all LSLs by the end of 2021. The City estimates that between 4,000 and 8,000 LSLs remain in the water system, though it has replaced over 4,000 in the course of maintenance activities. As part of its asset management, the City has worked to identify and document LSL locations and areas where LSLs has been replaced using ArcGIS technology.
In January 2017, Galesburg announced it would replace LSLs in the city using funds from the Drinking Water State Revolving Loan Fund administered by the Illinois EPA. The city provides a lookup tool for residents to search their address and check the service line material. In total, the city has 4,700 LSLs.
Geneva, New York
In February 2018, the City of Geneva announced it had received grant funding from the state Department of Health to develop and implement an LSL replacement program. Eligible residents that apply and are accepted into the program can have their LSL replaced at no charge by a contractor obtained by the City. The City has worked to ensure property owners are aware of the program and the dangers of lead in drinking water through several rounds and types of outreach to residents, including a press release, website information, social media, and water bill notices.
Gloversville, New York
In May 2018, Gloversville Water announced in its newsletter that the City had been awarded a grant from the state Department of Health for replacing LSLs on private property. The Water Department began replacing LSLs in September 2018. All residents are encouraged to contact the City to ask if they are eligible for the program and if they have an LSL.
Grand Rapids, Michigan
The City of Grand Rapids has a policy enabling LSL replacement at no cost to the property owner if the LSL has a leak or if the property is within the limits of a water main replacement. For property owners that do not meet one of these conditions, the city also offers a 10 year low interest loan to assist with financing proactive replacement. The city coordinates replacement on the public side when the property owner replaces the private side of the LSL.
The city of Janesville is reimbursing homeowners up to $5,000 for LSL replacement on the private side, which will fund approximately 100 LSL replacements.
In Spring 2018, Hudson received funds through the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality’s Pilot Drinking Water Infrastructure Grant program for various water infrastructure projects; including finding and replacing lead service lines. The LSL replacement work will entail: updating the city’s materials inventory, verifying material, notifying property owners about the process, obtaining consent from property owners for replacement of the private side of the LSLs, and performing full replacements.
In 2019, the city of Joliet, Illinois began a program to inventory and replace LSLs in the water system. Homeowners with confirmed LSLs can participate in a cost share – in which the city coordinates all work with a contractor to replace the LSL on public property when the owner replaces the portion on private property. Additionally, no interest loans, with negotiable terms, are available to the property owners.
Kingston, New York
The City of Kingston launched its LSL Replacement Program in April 2018. Using a grant from the NYS Department of Health, the City is identifying and replacing LSLs, starting in high priority areas. Under the program, the City will cover the cost of replacement for most owner occupied properties and non-owner occupied rental properties will be required to contribute $750 for replacement.
The Village of Lombard has a Lead Water Service Line Replacement Reimbursement Program to assist homeowners with the cost of service line replacement on the private side. Property owners may qualify for a 50% cost sharing up to $1,500 under the program. For eligibility, property owners must: have a confirmed LSL; receive water from the Village; not have already started the replacement process; have current, paid property taxes; and not have any delinquent fees to the Village.
While Louisville Water has been replacing LSLs for the last several decades, the utility recently began an aggressive program and set a goal of replacing the 4,600 lead services remaining on public property by 2020. When a lead service is replaced on the public side, the utility offers funding to assist property owners with replacement if the private side is also made of lead. Louisville Water has developed robust outreach materials to assist customers during the replacement process, including an informative video on flushing. Additionally, the utility has an online lead service lookup where customers can enter their account number to check if the public side of their service line is made of lead.
Malden is in the process of developing an LSL replacement program. The city estimates it has 3,000 LSLs and provides a map on its website that shows the service line material of the public and private sides. The city works to coordinate public side replacement if a homeowner removes the private side. Homeowners that want to replace their service line may be eligible to receive no-interest loans through the Malden Redevelopment Authority.
Manitowoc Public Utilities is developing a program to disburse limited funds awarded by Wisconsin DNR to residents who replace LSLs on their property. The utility estimates 6,500 LSLs remain on the public side, which are detailed on an interactive map on the utility's website. Qualified residents will be eligible for reimbursement for LSL replacement, the full details of which are still being finalized.
Using a $300,000 grant from Wisconsin DNR, Marshfield Utilities is reimbursing residents – on a first come first serve basis – for LSL replacement on the private side.
Memphis Gas, Water, and Light has an interactive map of the city that identifies whether the service line material is lead, non-lead, or unknown at each address. To develop the map, the utility started with a database of early service line records and also performed city-wide inspections of service lines.
Middletown, New York
Middletown is using funding from the New York Department of Health’s LSLR Program to replace LSLs in the water system at no cost to the property owner. Property owners that may have a lead, galvanized, or brass service line or are unsure of the material are advised to have the Public Works department verify the service line material.
A Milwaukee ordinance signed in December 2016 created a plan to begin replacing LSLs in the city. Milwaukee Water Works (MWW) is replacing the full service line when any leaking or damaged LSLs are found during construction or when there is planned or emergency replacement of the utility-owned portion of the line. In addition, LSLs at 385 childcare facilities and eight private schools will be replaced. Residential property owners of 1-4 family dwellings who use the city contractor are eligible for special assessment financing or a city cost share. MWW estimates that 70,000 residential properties and 6,000 commercial properties have LSLs. The city provides a list of building addresses with an LSL on the public side.
The City of Moline has an interactive map where users can search for an address or pan the map to find an address, click on an icon on the property, and learn the service line material from the water main to the curb valve and from the curb valve to the house. Additionally, the City provides a list of addresses with known LSLs and a summary of the water system’s service pipe material inventory.
In November 2019, the Village of Montgomery began a program to replace all LSLs in the water system. The Village is conducting the work using funding from the Illinois EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund.
Muskegon received funding from the state Department of Environmental Quality in 2018 for the purposes of water infrastructure improvements, including LSL replacement. The City aims to eliminate LSLs to customers’ homes, and is conducting replacements during the course of other system construction throughout 2019 and 2020.
The City of Naperville has a rebate program to assist property owners with LSL replacement. The rebate for replacement ranges from $2,550 to $4,250, depending on the length of the service line. Naperville also has an interactive map where property parcels are shaded to represent whether the service line material is unknown, not made of lead, or verified lead. The Water Department has identified approximately 345 parcels with LSLs, and is working on a program and plan for replacement.
Newburgh, New York
In June 2018, the City of Newburgh announced the launch of its Lead Service Line Replacement Program. The program uses a $544,000 grant from the state Department of Health to replace LSLs from the city’s water main to the property owner’s meter at no cost to the property owner – up to $10,000. The City anticipates replacing approximately 68 LSLs between 2018 and 2019. Eligible property owners in single family properties or rental properties may apply.
The City of Newton announced a program in July 2016 to replace LSLs in the water distribution system. Through a record review and inspection process, the Department of Public Works identified homes with LSLs. Property owners with LSLs are able to enroll in the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority’s home service line program, and the City participates in a cost-share with the property owner to finance replacement on the private side of the line.
New York City, New York
In 2019 using funding from the state, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection developed a program to provide assistance to eligible low-income homeowners for LSL replacement on private property at no cost to the homeowner. The City has also developed an interactive map where users can search for a specific address and learn if the service line material is non-lead, lead, or unknown.
North Hempstead, New York
In November 2018, North Hempstead announced it had received a $611,300 grant from the state Department of Health (NYSDOH) for LSL replacement. The Town’s Community Development Agency (CDA) is coordinating with the Town Planning and Building departments to administer the grant and implement the replacement program. To participate in the program, residents must test their water for lead using NYSDOH free lead testing kits and submit the results to the CDA along with other materials. Program priorities include assisting households with pregnant women, young children, children with disabilities, and households with 150% area median income (AMI) adjusted gross household income. CDA reviews applications for eligibility, confirms the presence of an LSL, helps hire a contractor, and ensures the work is performed. Eligible residents can receive up to $7,000 towards the cost of replacement.
Oshkosh Public Works Department – Water Utility is in the process of developing a plan for full LSL replacement of the estimated 7,500-9,700 lines on the public side and 11,000 on the private side. In March 2017 the city updated its Municipal Code with Section 20-13, finding it necessary to establish a program for replacement of public and private side LSLs, and provided information to residents about the program. Currently, the project is funded through a Wisconsin DNR award; the city reimburses 50% (up to $1,500) of the cost of private side LSL replacement for eligible homeowners.
In August 2018, Owosso received a Pilot Drinking Water Infrastructure Grant from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality for system improvements including LSL investigation and replacement. The City is in the process of identifying potential lead and galvanized steel services to create an inventory – starting with contacting property owners and receiving consent for investigation. In future stages, the city will plan for removal and conduct full replacements with available funding. Areas targeted for replacement will include locations with planned street construction, Lead & Copper Sampling Sites, known lead/ galvanized service locations, and other locations based on neighborhood age.
Passaic Valley Water Company, New Jersey
The Passaic Valley Water Company, which serves Paterson, Clifton, Passaic and Prospect Park, has a program to provide low-cost zero interest loans to property owners to assist with the cost of replacing LSLs. The utility has educational materials to assist residents with identifying service line material and offers water testing.
The Philadelphia Water Department replaces the full service line, at no cost to the resident, when an LSL is discovered during water main replacements. The city has determined that the entire service line, including the portion on public property, is owned by the property owner. The department also provides interest free loans for residents interested in replacing their LSL if main replacement is not scheduled. Additionally, in March 2017, the Philadelphia Mayor signed a bill amending the City’s Health Code to expand required disclosures for lead paint hazards to include lead plumbing components and LSLs for rental owners.
Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA) was required to begin replacing LSLs on the public side in June 2016. The utility began development of a Lead Water Service Line Program in October 2016; the program includes identifying LSLs and assisting property owners that want to coordinate private and public side replacement. The Pittsburgh Urban Redevelopment Authority offers property owners loans up to $10,000 at 3% interest to assist with the cost of private side replacement. Property owners can search an interactive map on PWSA's website to check service line material on the public and private side. In May 2017, PWSA halted partial replacements.
In 2017, the City of Princeton launched a Lead Water Service Replacement Program to identify and replace LSLs in the water system. To begin, the utility staff inventoried publicly and privately owned service lines. After determining service line material, the city contacted residents with lead lines and informed the property owner of Princeton’s program that assists with replacement.
Providence, Rhode Island
In August 2017, Providence Water launched a program to assist homeowners with the cost of LSL replacement on the private side. For the pilot program, the utility is offering 3-year, 0% interest loans for homeowners. Providence Water will automatically replace the public portion of the line when the private side is replaced. Additionally, the utility has an interactive map where users can search an address or account number and learn if the side of the service line on public property is made of lead.
Racine Water Utility instituted a private lead service lateral rebate program to replace the full LSL, partly funded by Wisconsin DNR. Eligible homeowners can receive up to $3,000 towards the cost of replacement. The city estimates 11,000 LSLs remain in the system.
Revere received a loan from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority in November 2017 to assist with design of an LSL replacement program. Additionally, the City received SRF funding to fully fund replacement of nearly 300 LSLs on public and private property. Revere began replacements under the program in 2018 and is continuing in 2019.
Richmond Department of Public Utilities has an LSL Replacement Grant Program that provides financial assistance to property owners to replace LSLs on private property in coordination with replacement on the public side. Eligible homeowners can receive up to $2,500 toward the cost of the replacement.
Rochester, New York
Rochester has an interactive map that provides property information, including property assessment, zoning, tax, and water billing information, about addresses in the city. Interested users can learn the inside and outside service line material of an address by selecting a property on the map or searching for the address, owner, or SBL (section, block, and lot) and clicking on a tab for “water” information. The City also has a webpage that provides drinking water safety tips.
The Rockford Water Division encourages eligible property owners with an LSL to coordinate with the Water Division to replace the LSL on public and private property at the same time. Additionally, the City launched an interactive map to provide information about the location of LSLs to residents and business owners. The map displays if the service line materials is lead, non-lead, or if there is no information for the public and private side of the line.
In 2018, the city of Saginaw received a Pilot Water Infrastructure Grant from the state Department of Environmental Quality to develop an inventory of LSLs in the water system and replace the lines. The city is determining service line through a preliminary records review followed by onsite investigations. For replacements, Saginaw is starting in areas with planned construction projects and is moving towards establishing a schedule for replacement of all LSLs per the state Lead and Copper Rule.
St. Clair Shores, Michigan
St. Clair Shores is in the process of developing an LSL replacement program in response to the state’s revised Lead and Copper Rule. The city is starting by conducting outreach and will move to increase sampling, provide filters to residents, and build its inventory in later stages of the program, with the goal of replacing all remaining LSLs in “the shortest amount of time as possible.” City staff estimates approximately 650 customers have LSLs.
St. Francis, Wisconsin
St. Francis received funding from the state Department of Natural Resources to replace LSLs on private property. Though Milwaukee Water Works owns and operates the water system in the city – and has a separate LSL replacement program for the public side – this program allows property owners to be reimbursed for the cost of replacement on private property. Eligible property owners who use an approved plumber can be reimbursed up to $5,000. The City estimates it can perform approximately 90 replacements with the funding.
St. Joseph, Michigan
In April 2018, St. Joseph received a grant from the state Department of Environmental Quality’s Pilot Drinking Program for updating the distribution system material inventory and replacing LSLs. To update the inventory, city staff conducted inspections in various areas in the city, collected data, and created a GIS map. The City then identified and prioritized eligible locations for LSL and galvanized service replacements. Completed, planned, and potential replacement locations are marked on a static map on the city’s website.
St. Paul, Minnesota
The St. Paul Regional Water Services (SPRWS) replaces hundreds of LSLs annually in the water supply system, and has an assessment program to assist homeowners with replacement on the private side. The program allows residents to have the cost of replacement collected through property taxes and assessed over several years. Additionally, SPRWS has an interactive map displaying if service line material is lead, not-lead, or unknown on public and private property. The utility also provides free water testing to residents.
Sheboygan Water Utility is using Wisconsin DNR funding to target specific projects, including replacing LSLs at schools and licensed day care centers and replacing failing or disturbed LSLs. Homeowners who are eligible for rebates can receive up to $2,500 for the cost of private side LSL replacement. The city estimates 7,500 LSLs remain in the system.
Springfield is working to identify and replace lead goosenecks remaining in the town’s water system. The Water Department has inventoried service lines and conducted additional research and excavation to verify any lead material. The Town has publicly identified areas of concern where addresses could have lead goosenecks. When lead goosenecks are found, the property owner is notified and the gooseneck is replaced by the Town authority.
Syracuse, New York
Syracuse Water Department has a Residential Lead Service Replacement Program whereby the city hires a plumber for eligible homeowners, and the property owner has the choice of adding the cost of replacement to their tax bill in a lump sum or over a ten-year period at 7% interest. Additionally, in 2017, Syracuse received a grant from the state Department of Health’s LSLR Program for full replacement of LSLs.
Toledo, Ohio has replaced LSLs on public property as part of its water main replacement program since 1999, and will coordinate replacement if a property owner also replaces the portion on private property. Beginning in 2020, the City began a dedicated initiative to replace LSLs, which includes offering residents zero interest loans to assist with the cost of replacement on the private side. Additionally, the City has an interactive map displaying if the service line material is copper, iron, unknown, or lead on public and private property.
Trenton Water Works, New Jersey
Trenton Water Works (TWW) was required to begin replacing LSLs on the public side in 2018. The utility developed a Lead Service Line Replacement Program to assist property owners with the cost of LSL replacement on the private side. Under the program, up to 2,600 residents can have their LSL replaced for $1,000. TWW estimates that there are 19,000 LSLs in the water system (the utility serves the City of Trenton, Hamilton Township, Hopewell Township, Lawrence Township, and parts of Ewing Township.)
The City of Viroqua is in the process of identifying and replacing lead goosenecks and galvanized services in the water system. Using funds from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the City will provide grants to eligible property owners to assist with the cost of replacement.
In December 2018, the District Council passed legislation that takes several important steps on lead in water by redressing past partial LSL replacements and requiring property owners to disclose the presence of an LSL to potential homebuyers and renters. For partial replacements, the legislation provides financial support to homeowners who did not replace the portion of the LSL on private property previously when they were expected to shoulder the entire cost. The District will pay eligible property owners between 50 and 100% of the cost of replacement up to $2,500 – with additional assistance provided for low-income residents. The law also updates two existing DC Water programs – for customer-initiated and utility-initiated replacement. Under the utility’s voluntary LSL replacement program, when a property owner requests replacement, the utility will coordinate the work and pay for replacing the portion on public property. And, when DC Water is conducting a main or LSL replacement on public property, the utility will use appropriated funds to fully finance private side replacement (with the resident’s consent). For more information on this legislation see EDF’s blog. In October, 2019, DC Mayor Muriel Bowser appropriated $1.8 million in her Fiscal Year 2020 budget to fund the Lead Pipe Replacement Assistance Program, which is designed to replace legacy partial LSLs remaining on private property.
Additionally, DC Water also provides an interactive map on its website that allows users to search any address and see what is known about the service line material on the public and private side.
The City of Wausau received funding from the state Department of Natural Resources to replace LSLs on private property. Wausau Waterworks Commission prioritized replacement of LSLs as follows: 1) schools and daycares, (2) locations along street reconstruction project, (3) locations where the utility will be performing replacement on the public side due to a leak, (4) locations where the utility previously replaced the LSL on public property, and (5) other locations with private side LSLs. Funding-permitting, the utility can offer up to $3,000 for each replacement site.
The City of Wheaton has an interactive map displaying the water service material on the public and private side of the line. Users must click on an icon on the address of interest to learn the material from the main to curb valve and from the curb valve to the house.
Winthrop received a loan from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) in December 2017 to fully fund replacement of 20 LSLs on public and private property and 17 LSLs on private property. The Town anticipates expanding the program using future funding.
In March 2017, Winchester received a loan from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) to replace LSLs and lead goosenecks in the city’s water system. The loan fully funded replacement on public property and provided participating homeowners with $1,500 to assist with the cost of replacement on private property.
Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin
Wisconsin Rapids received funding from the state Department of Natural Resources to replace LSLs on private property. Eligible property owners that use an approved plumber can receive up to $4,000 to reimburse the cost of LSL replacement. The utility posted a map on its website to identify approved areas.
**Though the Lead and Copper Rule does not define a lead service line to include service lines that only have lead pipe in a gooseneck or pigtail, we consider them to be a lead service line. This approach is consistent with EPA's Advisory Committee's recommendations.