A long history of exaggerated costs


Every time a new environmental rule is proposed, someone tries to scare the public into thinking America can’t afford it.

And every time, the cost of the new rule turns out to be far lower than opponents claim. In fact, the benefits of laws like the Clean Air Act outweigh costs by 30 to 1.

Don't be fooled by polluters, acid rain.

Don't be fooled by polluters, CAA amendments.

Don't be fooled by polluters, federal vehicle standards.

Policy resources

Fact sheets and analyses on EPA’s Clean Power Plan, also referred to as 111(d). 

Details on the proposed standards »

Media contact


Federal Acid Rain program

A. Denny Ellerman, , Ex-post Evaluation of Tradable Permits: The U.S. SO2 Cap-and-Trade Program, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (2003).

1990 Clean Air Act amendments

Business Roundtable. “Clean Air Act Legislation Cost Evaluation,” January 18, 1990; E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc., contracted by EPA.

See also Suzanne Brooks, Testimony on EPA’s Proposed Rule for “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coaland Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial- Institutional, and Small Industrial- Commercial-Institutional Steam Generating Units”, May 24, 2011 Public Hearing, available here.

Federal Vehicle Standards

Roland Hwang and Matt Peak, Innovation and Regulation in the Automobile Sector: Lessons Learned and Implication for California’s CO2 Standards, NRDC (2006)